September 27th, 2020

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Microbial Infections in Saudi Women During Pregnancy, Parturition, and Puerperium: An Experience from Published Literature (1976–2018)
Authors:  Mohammed Y. Areeshi, Ph.D., Awais Ahmed, M.B.A., Afnan A. Mohammad AlMass, M.D., Raju K. Mandal, Ph.D., Mohammad Irshad, Ph.D., and Shafiul Haque, Ph.D.
  OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of maternity-associated (pregnancy, parturition, and puerperium) infections reported from different regions of Saudi Arabia based on the published literature between 1976–2018.

STUDY DESIGN: PubMed, Google Scholar, and EM-BASE web databases were searched for relevant literature until September 2018. The infection risk strength was represented by odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Numerical data were collected, and descriptive statistics were performed.

RESULTS: A total of 34,109 women under maternity subjects reported in 26 articles from different regions of Saudi Arabia were included for viral/parasitic infections. The overall relative risk of virus infection was found to be more than 2 times higher than that of Toxoplasma gondii parasitic infection (RR=2.45, 95% CI 2.37–2.52, p=0.0001). The prevalence of herpes simplex virus infection was seen highest in Riyadh (98.3%, OR=10.25; p=0.0001). Likewise, cytomegalo-virus infection was more prevalent in Makkah as compared to Riyadh (OR=1.59, p=0.002). Measles virus infection was more prevalent in Makkah (93.3%) and Jeddah (91.6%) as compared to Riyadh (78.1%). The prevalence of HIV infection was higher in Riyadh, whereas the incidence of viral hepatitis was less in the entire kingdom.

CONCLUSION: The current findings suggest the need for special attention given to screening, prevention, and control strategies for women during and after the stages of maternity.
Keywords:  antibodies, viral; cytomegalovirus; global health; HIV infections; HSV-1; HSV-2; microbial infection; parturition; postpartum; postpartum period; postpartum women; pregnancy; pregnancy complications; pregnant women; puerperium; Saudi Arabia; toxoplasma
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